Around the Lab Past Issues

  • Target Shot
    March 2014
    25,000th Target Shot
    Target Shot

    Omega Laser Facility Reaches
    its 25,000th Target Shot

    The Omega Laser Facility recently completed its 25,000th experiment to create and study extreme states of matter. This achievement was noted by NNSA Deputy Administrator for Defense Programs Don Cook who underscored the important role [LLE] plays in advancing NNSA's mission of "maintaining the safety, security and effectiveness of the nuclear deterrent without nuclear testing." "It has made significant contributions to the Stockpile Stewardship Program," said Cook. "The Laboratory operates Omega as a very effective user facility. I congratulate the Omega team on this accomplishment and thank LLE for its sustained contributions to the stockpile mission."

    March 2014

  • Neutron temporal diagnostic
    September 2013
    Implementation of a New Neutron Temporal Diagnostic
    Neutron temporal diagnostic

    Implementation of a
    New Neutron Temporal Diagnostic

    The neutron temporal diagnostic (NTD) measures the fusion-reaction-rate history of neutrons emitted from DT- and D2-filled targets. The neutron burn width is an important measure of confinement and is used to infer pressures exceeding 30 Gbar in cryogenic DT implosions. During June, the OMEGA NTD was replaced with a new ROSS streak-camera–based system.

    September 2013

  • July 2013
    Upgrade of the MTW
    Laser Facility

    Upgrade of the MTW Laser Facility

    A multi-year upgrade to the Multi-Terawatt (MTW) Laser Facility is underway that will advance high-energy-density plasma physics and ultrafast laser science at the LLE. A new ultrafast beamline, based on optical parametric chirped-pulse–amplification (OPCPA), is being added to the facility. This optical parametric amplifier line (MTW-OPAL) will generate 15-fs, 150-mJ pulses at 5 Hz synchronously with the current picosecond pulses. The upgrade also includes modifications to the MTW laser for pumping the final OPCPA amplifier to increase the energy in a single shot to 7.5 J for a peak power of 0.5 PW. This upgrade in a new 1430-sq-ft laboratory adjacent to the Laser Development Laboratory enhances current MTW research capabilities and secures the foundation for a broad range of new optical physics and ultrahigh-intensity laser research.

    July 2013

  • Pockels-cell driver prototype
    August 2012
    Solid-State Pockels-Cell Driver Development at LLE
    Pockels-cell driver prototype

    Solid-State Pockels-Cell Driver Development at LLE

    A vital component in the OMEGA laser, a Pockels cell is an electro-optic crystal that, when a voltage is applied to it, rotates the polarization of laser light coming through the device. Depending on the voltage employed, the Pockels cell, combined with a polarizer, can either let light pass through unabated or completely reflect light, effectively establishing an optical switch. The operation of a Pockels cell requires timed rectangular electrical pulses from a special pulse generator, or pulser, with amplitudes ranging from hundreds of volts to tens of kilovolts and pulse widths from tens to hundreds of nanoseconds.

    August 2012

  • Target Shot
    February 2012
    Laser-Generated Plasma to Stimulate Nuclear Physics
    Target Shot

    Using a Laser-Generated Plasma to Stimulate the Field of Nuclear Physics

    The University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) ushered in a new frontier of plasma nuclear science at the Omega Laser Facility by measuring a nuclear scattering cross section more precisely than ever determined before with particle accelerators. "This is the first time a high-energy-density laser facility has been used to advance the field of nuclear physics," said Dr. David Meyerhofer, LLE Deputy Director and Professor of Mechanical Engineering and Physics & Astronomy. A research team from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and the University of Rochester worked on the project and published their findings in the 16 September 2011 Physical Review Letters.

    February 2012

  • Control Room
    November 2011
    Control Room Operations at LLE
    Control Room

    Control Room Operations at LLE

    The word "shot" can suggest an informal attempt, a try, or something upon which to bet. That casual attitude is far removed from the control, coordination, and caution built into all aspects of OMEGA and OMEGA EP shot operations. The atmosphere surrounding Control Room operations at LLE before a laser shot is fired feels measured, quietly assured, and cautiously anticipatory. Highly trained experienced scientists, engineers, and technicians "stand watch" at computer workstations to ensure operations move forward safely and as planned.

    Above, visitors to LLE can observe operations through the Control Room window.

    November 2011

  • Multi-Terawatt Laser
    September 2011
    The Multi-Terawatt Laser
    at LLE
    Multi-Terawatt Laser

    The Multi-Terawatt Laser at LLE

    The Multi-Terawatt laser (MTW) is a significant research tool supporting the University of Rochester's commitment to advancing research in the physics of x-ray and high-energy, directed-particle beams and ultrafast laser science at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics.

    September 2011

  • Cryogenic fill-tube target
    May 2011
    Target Fabrication at LLE
    Cryogenic fill-tube target

    Target Fabrication at LLE

    One of the primary goals of the Laboratory for Laser Energetics is conducting implosion experiments in support of the National Inertial Confinement Fusion program. The production of these targets is a complex, delicate process carried out by LLE's Target Fabrication Group.

    Above, well-controlled volumes of oil and water are dispensed electronically from a large reservoir. These droplets are electronically moved around a wafer and combined to form oil-water emulsions that are precursors for foam targets.

    May 2011

  • Image Title
    January 2011
    Multilayer Dielectric Gratings for OMEGA EP
    Image Title

    Multilayer Dielectric Gratings
    for OMEGA EP

    High-energy, petawatt (HEPW)-class lasers depend upon the superlative performance, efficiency, and damage threshold for picosecond pulses that multilayer dielectric diffraction gratings offer for pulse compression. The Laboratory for Laser Energetics has played a major role in the worldwide effort to realize the potential of these multilayer dielectric gratings.
    The installation of the new PGL gratings into the Grating Compressor Chamber is shown above.

    January 2011

  • Logo for the 40th anniversary of the Laboratory for Laser Energetics.
    October 2010
    Laser Lab Turns 40
    Logo for the 40th anniversary of the Laboratory for Laser Energetics.

    TIMELINE – Explore LLE’s History

    • Moshe J. Lubin

      Moshe J. Lubin

    • ZETA Laser

      ZETA Target Chamber

    • Jay M. Eastman

      Jay M. Eastman

    • OMEGA 24-Beam Laser

      OMEGA 24-Beam Laser

    • Target shot
    • Donald K. Hess

      Donald K. Hess

    • OMEGA 60-Beam Laser

      OMEGA 60-Beam Laser Firing

    • Target shot
    • Robert L. Sproull

      Robert L. Sproull

    • OMEGA EP Laser Bay

      OMEGA EP Firing

    • Target shot
    • Robert L. McCrory

      Robert L. McCrory

    • Omega Laser Facility

      OMEGA Target Bay During Shot

    • Target shot
    • Target shot

    Laser Lab Turns 40!

    This year, the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) marks its 40th anniversary as a unique national resource for investigating the interaction of intense radiation with matter. This important marker offers an opportunity to examine the highlights of the history of the LLE in order to prepare for the quest to harness nuclear fusion for the greater good.

    October 2010

  • Magazine cover image: 10 ans de collaboration sur le Laser Omega / 10 years of collaboration on Omega Laser Facility.
    September 2010
    Ten Years of French–American Collaboration
    Magazine cover image: 10 ans de collaboration sur le Laser Omega / 10 years of collaboration on Omega Laser Facility.

    LLE–CEA: Ten Years of French–American Collaboration at the Omega Laser Facility

    Since the first shot on Omega over a decade ago, more than 500 successful joint laser shots have been performed, thanks to the use of resources specific to CEA (targets, diagnostics, and principal investigators) and LLE teams. The CEA Experimental Program at LLE has extended the topics started on Nova, such as laser-plasma interaction, x-ray conversion, implosion symmetry and hydrodynamic instabilities.

    September 2010

  • Operators mount targets in the Hoppe Target Mounting Station
    June 2010
    LLE Provides DT Fueling of Targets for the NIC
    Operators mount targets in the Hoppe Target Mounting Station

    LLE Provides DT Fueling of
    Diagnostic Commissioning Targets
    for the National Ignition Campaign

    During the fall of 2009 and into the spring of 2010, LLE successfully developed and tested a technique to fill room-temperature, glass targets with deuterium–tritium (DT) fuel to 10 atm as is required for diagnostic purposes on the National Ignition Facility. Above, operators mount targets in the Hoppe Target Mounting Station.

    June 2010

  • Inner and intermediate shrouds of the new moving cryostat
    November 2009
    LLE's Mechanical Engineering Group
    Inner and intermediate shrouds of the new moving cryostat

    LLE's Mechanical Engineering Group

    The Mechanical Engineering Group provides a full range of mechanical design, engineering, fabrication, assembly, and testing capabilities. They specialize in designing, fabricating, and constructing unique and precise components and structures and are staffed by 26 full-time employees and 5 students. Shown above are the inner and intermediate shrouds for the new moving cryostat developed by the Mechanical Engineering group.

    November 2009

  • Photoconductor used in the new x-ray detector on OMEGA
    July 2009
    New X-Ray Detectors for the OMEGA Laser System
    Photoconductor used in the new x-ray detector on OMEGA

    New (Cd,Mn)Te X-Ray Detectors for the OMEGA Laser System

    Standard x-ray detectors used on the OMEGA Laser System have typically been diamond photoconductive detectors (PCD's) and x-ray diodes (XRD's). Recently, (Cd,Mn)Te (CMT) has been closely studied as a viable material for radiation detection because it can be used for x-ray energies of up to 100 keV and is relatively easy to grow as large, high-quality (homogeneous) single crystals.

    July 2009

  • Magnetic Recoil Spectrometer
    April 2009
    The OMEGA Magnetic Recoil Spectrometer
    Magnetic Recoil Spectrometer

    The OMEGA Magnetic Recoil Spectrometer

    The Magnetic Recoil Spectrometer (MRS), a novel neutron spectrometer under development since 2001, was installed on OMEGA in late 2008 to assess implosion performance. In collaboration with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Plasma Science and Fusion Center, the MRS provides absolute measurements of the neutron spectrum in the range 5 to 30 MeV, from which fuel areal density, ion temperature, and neutron yield can be determined.

    April 2009

  • The Publications and Design Department
    February 2009
    The Publications and Design Department at LLE
    The Publications and Design Department

    The Publications and Design Department at LLE

    Preparing numerous conference presentations, operations manuals, monthly Department of Energy reports, and formatting all publications that are submitted from the lab, the Publications and Design Department has earned the reputation of providing a high level of precision and an attention to detail, all with a quick turnaround.

    February 2009

  • LLE employee in laser bay
    November 2008
    Contamination-Resistant Sol-Gel Technology
    LLE employee in laser bay

    Contamination-Resistant Sol-Gel Technology

    What started in 2004 as a Summer High School Program research project focusing on the development ofcontaminant-resistant sol-gel coatings for laser optics, has now evolved into a significant piece of technology that has been installedon the 30-TW, 60-beam OMEGA laser at the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE).

    November 2008

  • 2008 Summer High School Program Participants
    September 2008
    2008 Summer High School Research Program
    2008 Summer High School Program Participants

    2008 Summer High School Research Program

    This summer, 15 Rochester-area high school students participated in the LLE Summer High School Research Program. Since 1989, this program has challenged 233 talented and dedicated high school students interested in science, mathematics, and technology to explore research topics and careers under the tutelage of LLE scientists, engineers, and staff in a state-of-the art environment. These research projects draw on the theoretical and laboratory expertise of many disciplines, including physics, optics, chemistry, spectroscopy, diagnostic development, controls engineering, software development, and materials science.

    September 2008

  • Target Viewing System
    July 2008
    New Target Viewing System (TVS2) Installed
    Target Viewing System

    New Target Viewing System (TVS2) Installed

    A new Target Viewing System, a project under development at the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics since 2003, has been recently installed on the OMEGA target chamber. This system is a major redesign and upgrade of the existing TVS system.

    July 2008

  • OMEGA EP Target Shot
    May 2008
    OMEGA EP Laser Dedication
    OMEGA EP Target Shot

    OMEGA EP Laser Dedication

    On Friday, 16 May 2008, Dr. Robert McCrory, Vice Provost, Director, and CEO of the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE), along with special guests, which included University of Rochester President Joel Seligman, U.S. Senator Charles Schumer, U.S. Congressman Thomas Reynolds, and Undersecretary for Nuclear Security for the U.S. Department of Energy Thomas D'Agostino, dedicated the new OMEGA EP laser at the Robert L. Sproull Center for Ultra High Intensity Laser Research at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics.

    May 2008

  • Cryogenic Target
    March 2008
    Performance and Capabilities of the CFTF
    Cryogenic Target

    Performance and Capabilities of the Cryogenic Fill-Tube Target Test Facility (CFTF) at the LLE

    A small group of scientists at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE), who support research at LLE and are devoted to the priorities of the National Ignition Facility (NIF), are currently designing and building a test station to characterize advanced cryogenic targets using deuterium–tritium (DT) fuel. Future direct-drive experiments on the NIF will require that capsules be fueled using fill tubes and be supported along a horizontal orientation. Scientists at LLE are investigating the effect of the fill tube and support structure on fuel-layer uniformity.

    March 2008

  • Magneto-Inertial Fusion Electrical Discharge System
    August 2007
    Magneto-Inertial Fusion
    Magneto-Inertial Fusion Electrical Discharge System

    Magneto-Inertial Fusion: Enlisting Magnetic Fields for Improved Laser-Fusion Implosions

    While most of the research at Laboratory for Laser Energetics is devoted to the priorities of the National Ignition Campaign and future direct-drive experiments on the NIF, a small group of scientists at LLE has been looking (since 2006) at alternative, potentially more productive ways to achieve ignition and burn of laser-fusion capsules. One of these alternative concepts involves the use of strong magnetic fields, something normally associated with tokamaks and other devices for magnetic-fusion (MF) research.

    August 2007

  • Target Shot
    June 2007
    The LLE Completes Two NC Level-2 Milestones
    Target Shot

    The Laboratory for Laser Energetics Completes Two National Ignition Campaign Level-2 Milestones

    LLE infers 200 mg/cm² fuel areal density in a cryogenic direct-drive implosion on OMEGA and LLE validates polar-direct-drive concept for ignition on the NIF.

    June 2007

  • Rui Wang and her advisors
    April 2007
    LLE High School Program Participants Honored
    Rui Wang and her advisors

    LLE High School Program Participants Honored

    Three participants in LLE's 2006 Summer Research Program, Rui Wang from Fairport High School, Alexandra Cok from Allendale Columbia School, and Zuzana Culakova from Brighton High School, were honored in 2007 by the Intel Science Talent Search. First created in 1942 by the Westinghouse Corporation and assumed by the Intel Corporation in 1998, the Science Talent Search is often referred to as the "Junior Nobel Prize" and is the country's most prestigious science scholarship competition. Alumni of the competition include National Medal of Science winners, MacArthur Foundation fellows, Field medalists and Nobel Laureates.

    April 2007

  • Collage of charts and target shot image
    January 2007
    2006 Year in Review
    Collage of charts and target shot image

    2006 Year in Review

    2006 was a year of significant accomplishments at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics. Here are some of our major achievements and milestones in the past year.

    January 2007

  • Plasma Electrode Pockels Cell
    December 2006
    LLE Builds Large Aperture Pockels Cell Drivers
    Plasma Electrode Pockels Cell

    LLE Builds New High Voltage, Large Aperture Pockels Cell Drivers

    To meet the demands of its OMEGA EP laser, the Laboratory for Laser Energetics added four solid-state high voltage, large-aperture Pockels-cell drivers in 2006.

    December 2006

  • C-Mount Target Shot
    October 2006
    LLE Achieves Cryogenic Target Milestone
    C-Mount Target Shot

    LLE Achieves Cryogenic Target Milestone

    In July 2006, scientists at the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics achieved a major breakthrough in laser-fusion research that could have a significant impact on future energy production.

    October 2006

  • ROSS Streak Camera
    June 2006
    The ROSS Streak Camera
    ROSS Streak Camera

    The ROSS Streak Camera

    What measurement needs are common to the search for fusion energy, molecular imaging, and the development of high-speed fiber-optic communications? The measurement of ultrafast transient events is one such common need of these and many other state-of-the-art technologies.

    June 2006

  • Kids touring OMEGA
    April 2006
    Kids at Work Day 2006
    Kids touring OMEGA

    Kids at Work Day 2006

    On April 27, sixty-one students took a break from school to get another kind of education. The students, all children of Laboratory for Laser Energetics employees and between 8 and 14 years of age, came to the Lab for the fifth annual Kids@Work Day.

    April 2006

  • Robert L. Sproull next to dedication plaque
    May 2005
    Robert L. Sproull Center Dedicated
    Robert L. Sproull next to dedication plaque

    Robert L. Sproull Center Dedicated

    On 11 May 2005, LLE dedicated the Robert L. Sproull Center for Ultra High Intensity Laser Research. This facility was named in honor of the University of Rochester's seventh president and will house the OMEGA EP Laser System.

    May 2005

  • Kids touring OMEGA
    April 2005
    Kids at Work Day
    Kids touring OMEGA

    April 28 2005: Kids at Work Day

    Photos from the April 28 2005: Kids at Work Day.

    April 2005

  • Bruce Brewington and Steve Craxton
    April 2005
    More Than a Summer Job
    Bruce Brewington and Steve Craxton

    More Than a Summer Job

    Participants in our Summer High School Research Program perform real research, not just summer projects. Furthermore, their work sometimes continues and impacts the Laboratory long after they have returned to their studies. Research projects performed by Bruce Brewington and Daniel Balonek are prime examples of ongoing research that stemmed from a short summer program.

    April 2005

  • Alt Text of the Image
    September 2004
    Kids at Work Day
    Alt Text of the Image

    Kids at Work Day

    In honor of the back-to-school season, LLE is looking back on last spring's Kids at Work Day. After and introduction to the Laboratory, this year's participants enjoyed a tour of the OMEGA EP construction site (including hard hats), facility tours, and demonstrations in target fabrication and optics. Enjoy the show!

    September 2004

  • Cryogenic Target Characterization
    March 2004
    Cryogenic Target Characterization
    Cryogenic Target Characterization

    Cryogenic Target Characterization

    The ultimate goal of inertial confinement fusion is to produce more thermonuclear energy from a laser implosion than the energy required to power the laser. Such a positive gain is a potential source of energy that can be converted to electricity. To reach this goal, laser fusion experiments must use high quality cryogenic targets. The bulk of the research performed at LLE is directed towards understanding the basic physics issues involved in these experiments and includes fabrication and characterization of cryogenic targets.

    March 2004

  • Alt Text of the Image
    February 2004
    Summer High School Program
    Alt Text of the Image

    Summer High School Program

    Each February, LLE invites area high school juniors to apply to our summer research program. Selected applicants are teamed with staff advisors and spend eight weeks working on individual research projects. These projects culminate in a symposium where the students present their research findings to family, teachers, and members of the Laboratory's scientific and technical staff. Fifteen students participated in 2003–this is the second year LLE has hosted a group this large.

    February 2004

  • Tiled Gratings
    October 2003
    Tiled Gratings
    Tiled Gratings

    Tiled Gratings

    Tiled-Grating Pulse Compressor: An important element of the new OMEGA EP (extended performance) laser system is the grating compressor used to form short pulses of light at the output of the system. The most-promising technology is a holographically formed, etched grating that, combined with a multilayer dielectric (MLD) coating, forms a highly efficient grating used in reflection.

    October 2003

  • Amplifier Group
    June 2003
    OMEGA EP Amplifier
    Amplifier Group

    OMEGA EP Amplifier

    Amplifiers and their associated power conditioning units are the basic building blocks of any laser system. The energy required to perform ICF experiments is much greater than that in the initial beam. Amplifiers placed throughout the system incrementally increase the energy of each beam until it meets the requirements for experimental use.

    June 2003

  • Kids at Work
    May 2003
    Kids @ Work Day
    Kids at Work

    Kids @ Work Day

    On April 24, 2003, LLE sponsored a morning-long program entitled Kids@Work for the national "Bring Your Children to Work Day." Forty-one children, ages 8 to 15, were treated to demonstrations, tours of laboratory facilities, and, of course, pizza! Dr. Robert McCrory, Director of LLE, opened the program by welcoming the children and describing some of the important work performed at LLE. He emphasized that LLE plays a critical role in national security and has a long-term mission based on the development of fusion energy.

    May 2003

  • Phoebe Rounds and frequency-conversion crystals
    April 2003
    Phoebe Rounds
    Phoebe Rounds and frequency-conversion crystals

    Phoebe Rounds

    Recently, Phoebe Robeson Rounds was selected as a finalist in the Intel Science Talent Search for research she performed while participating in LLE's 2002 Summer High School Research Program. Phoebe developed a systematic method for generating new tripler designs for use on OMEGA or any other high-power ICF laser system. Her method involves the optimization of thickness, tilt, and spacing of the frequency-conversion crystals. Phoebe is the second student from the LLE program to advance to the finals in this nationwide competition.

    April 2003

  • OMEGA EP
    March 2003
    OMEGA EP Project
    OMEGA EP

    OMEGA EP Project

    LLE is launching a multi-year project to build a new ultra-high power laser to complement the ongoing mission of experiments conducted on the OMEGA laser. The new project–OMEGA EP (extended performance)–is a modern architecture 4 beam laser with special capabilities in short-pulse performance (2.6 kJ in a 1-ps pulse).

    March 2003

  • 2002 Summer HS students
    February 2003
    Summer High School Program
    2002 Summer HS students

    Summer High School Program

    Each year, LLE invites area high school juniors to apply to a summer research program. Selected applicants are teamed with staff advisors and spend eight weeks working on individual research projects. These projects culminate in a symposium where the students present their findings to family, teachers, and members of the Laboratory's scientific and technical staff. Fifteen students participated in 2002, the largest group in the program's fourteen-year history.

    February 2003

  • Comparison of images from x-ray pinhole camera to images from x-ray microscope
    January 2003
    2002 Year in Review
    Comparison of images from x-ray pinhole camera to images from x-ray microscope

    2002 Year in Review

    In a September OMEGA experiment, the fusion neutron yield from a D2-filled cryogenic target implosion was near 100% of the 1-D LILAC hydrodynamic code prediction. The time-integrated x-ray images shown above were used to assess the implosion symmetry and placement precision of the cryogenic targets. This is only one of many accomplishments that took place at LLE in 2002.

    January 2003

  • Liquid Crystal Image
    December 2002
    Liquid Crystals
    Liquid Crystal Image

    Liquid Crystals

    Liquid crystal optics have provided LLE with substantial cost and performance advantages over the years. Their unique molecular ordering gives rise to characteristic and colorful textures of great beauty when they are observed under a polarizing optical microscope.

    December 2002

  • A planar cryogenic target assembly
    November 2002
    Planar Cryo Target Positioner
    A planar cryogenic target assembly

    Planar Cryo Target Positioner

    A planar cryogenic target assembly is shown above (in color) at the target filling station where vacuum testing, purging, and filling are completed. This is part of the new planar cryogenic target positioner that has been deployed on OMEGA to measure the properties of condensed gasses at cryogenic temperatures.

    November 2002

  • A view of the mirror assembly after the mid-shield has been loaded.
    September 2002
    Deformable Mirror Assembly
    A view of the mirror assembly after the mid-shield has been loaded.

    Deformable Mirror Assembly

    LLE's Optical Manufacturing Group is currently coating, assembling, and acceptance testing 186 deformable mirrors for use on the National Ignition Facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. LLE has optimized a low-stress, high-reflectance coating process for the deformable mirror faceplate and has developed an aluminum sputtering capability to coat the posts on the rear side of the optic.

    September 2002

  • Explaining microhardness testing
    August 2002
    COM Summer School
    Explaining microhardness testing

    COM Summer School

    The Center for Optics Manufacturing (COM) hosted their annual Summer School program, New Machines, Tools, and Processes for Modern Optics Manufacturing, during June 2002. This program provided an intensive overview of the emerging technologies that will shape optics manufacturing during this century.

    August 2002

  • The MCTC, containing a layered target, is pulled away from the Characterization Station
    June 2002
    Moving the MCTC
    The MCTC, containing a layered target, is pulled away from the Characterization Station

    Moving the MCTC

    The Moving Cryogenic Target Cart (MCTC) is part of the Cryogenic Target Handling System (CTHS), an operation unique to LLE. LLE is the first laboratory worldwide to create a cryogenic target with a smooth surface, transport it to the OMEGA Target Chamber while maintaining a constant temperature and vacuum, and implode the target using inertial confinement fusion. The MCTC is crucial to this process.

    June 2002